Important New Features in Oracle Database Vault Oracle 12c Release 2 version

At this note; you will find the most  important new features in Oracle Database Vault 12c Release 2.First start with Oracle Database Vault Policies.

A new Object type is introduced in Oracle Database Vault 12c Release 2 version. This type is called   Oracle Database Vault Policy. With Oracle Database Vault Policies you can group and manage some realms and command rules  together. By this way you can change the status of some realms and commands with a one command. As you expect ; when you collect some realms and command rules in a vault policy ; there should be something commons in realms and command rules. It will  be nonsense If you put all Realms and Commend Rules into one Vault Policy.

Another enhancement  in Database Vault in the new version is the simulation mode. When you put   Realms and Command Rules in a simulation mode; SQL commands are not blocked , but violations are logged.

Another change has been  made in Privilege Analysis at this version. Now Privilege Analysis captures more privileges. At the same time a new object is created in Privilege Analysis which is called Capture runs. You can create multiple capture runs for one analysis and produce comparisons reports against different capture runs.

As you know;  All Oracle 12c Release 2 databases are  multi-tenant databases. Therefore new Common Realms and Common Command Rules are introduced in this version.

Common Realms  and Common  Command Rules can only be created in application root not in CDB root. A Common Command Rule in the application root is applied to all associated PDBs

The last word;  Changes have been made  added ALTER SESSION, ALTER SYSTEM and CONNECT Command Rules.By this way; you can more preciously define prevention rules on ALTER SESSION, ALTER SYSTEM commands.

Thanks for reading this note.

Y. Anıl Akduygu

 

 

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Monitoring DCL operations with Oracle DB Vault

DCL ( Data Control Languages ) operations control privileges in Database. Privileges in Oracle are granted and revoked by GRANT and REVOKE commands. Auditing these kind of operations are very critical for the security of any databases. There are three different ways to audit DCL operations in Oracle Databases.

One of them is to use audit commands like below;

audit grant any object privilege by access
audit grant any privilege by access
audit grant any role by access

The disadvantage of this method is when DBAs run GRANT  and REVOKE commands with SYSDBA role; the audit is written to a file in the database server ( in Oracle 11g version ). In that case It can be difficult to report these operations,  and DBAs can disable the audit in the database. If you use Oracle 12c version; you can collect all data in a table but still DBAs can disable audit rules.

The another method is to use AFTER GRANT OR REVOKE ON DATABASE trigger. But in this method; you have to keep all monitoring data in a special table and DBAs can easily disable this trigger and delete the audited table.

The third method is to use DB Vault. When you use the DB vault; audited data can not be deleted by DBAs,  at the same DBAs can not disable the special rule to audit DCL commands. Using the Vault is the best and secure method to monitor DCL operations in Oracle. At the same time;  you can make prevention on GRANT and REVOKE commands with DB Vault. But the disadvantage of this method is  to pay for DB vault license;

Now in this note I will show you ; how you can monitor DCL operations with DB Vault. I assume that you have some knowledge about in Oracle DB Vault.

First; Create a special rule set   named DCL_Operations. The important point in this rule set is the Audit Option. The audit option must be “Audit On Success or Failure”  ( Figure -1).

dcl01.JPG

Figure-1

Now Create a rule which is always TRUE. And This rule is associated with DLC_Operations rule set  (Figure-2).

dcl02.JPG

Figure-2

Now We can create a Command Rule for GRANT command with DLC_Operations Rule set ( Figure-3).

dcl03.JPG

Create a Command Rule for REVOKE command as well ( Figure-4).

dcl04.JPG

Figure-4

Now , your new commands should be seen like Figure – 5.

dcl05.JPG

Figure-5

Let’s check the DB Vault definitions by running a GRANT and REVOKE commands ( Figure-6)

dcl07.JPG

Now ; run the Command Rule Audit Report to see how the DB vault definitions are auditied GRANT and REVOKE commands ( Figure-7)

dcl06.JPG

As you see; we successfully audited GRANT and REVOKE commands by using DB Vault.

Thanks for reading this note.

Yusuf Anıl Akduygu

A video tutorial – How Disable Oracle Database Vault on Oracle 12c non-container Database

In this video ; you will see how to disable Oracle Database Vault on Oracle 12c non-container database; Let’s watch it

Notes for this video;

First Check Database properties and version

Column host_name format a10
Column name format a10
Column database_role format a15
Column open_mode format a10
Column  db_unique_name format a10

select  host_name, name,database_role, open_mode,  db_unique_name,cdb   from
v$database , v$instance;

select banner from v$version;

Check DB Vault

column parameter format a25
column value format a10

SELECT * FROM gV$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER in
( ‘Oracle Database Vault’);

To disable DB Vault

Connect DVOWNER

EXEC DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV;

Restart Database

column parameter format a25
column value format a10

SELECT * FROM gV$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER in
( ‘Oracle Database Vault’);

To enable DB Vault

Connect DVOWNER

EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV;

Restart Database

column parameter format a25
column value format a10

SELECT * FROM gV$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER in
( ‘Oracle Database Vault’);

 

Thanks for reading it

Anıl Akduygu

A video tutorial to show how you can register Oracle DB vault to Oracle 12c non-container database

I prepared a video tutorial for you to show registering DB vault to Oracle 12c non-container database, Let’s watch it.

 

I added all scripts and notes in this video here;

First Check Database properties and version

Column host_name format a10

Column name format a10

Column database_role format a15

Column open_mode format a10

Column  db_unique_name format a10

select  host_name, name,database_role, open_mode,  db_unique_name,cdb   from

v$database , v$instance;

select banner from v$version;

Check DB Vault and Oracle Label Security already installed

select comp_id,status from dba_registry where comp_id in (‘OLS’,’DV’);

Create user for DB Vault;   dvowner for DB vault management, dvacctmngr for user management

CREATE USER dvowner IDENTIFIED BY oracle

DEFAULT TABLESPACE USERS

QUOTA UNLIMITED ON USERS;

GRANT CREATE SESSION TO dvowner;

CREATE USER dvacctmngr IDENTIFIED BY oracle

DEFAULT TABLESPACE USERS

QUOTA UNLIMITED ON USERS;

GRANT CREATE SESSION TO dvacctmngr ;

 

Configure DB Vault

BEGIN

DVSYS.CONFIGURE_DV (

dvowner_uname => ‘dvowner’,

dvacctmgr_uname => ‘dvacctmngr’);

END;

/

Compile Invalid Objects

@?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql

Enable DB Vault

CONNECT dvowner

EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV;

Restart Database

column parameter format a25

column value format a10

SELECT * FROM gV$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER in ( ‘Oracle Database Vault’,’Oracle Label Security’);

 

Oracle DB Vault New Features in Oracle 12c R1 – Part 2 : Enabling DB Vault

In this article I will continue to describe the changes in Oracle DB Vault in  Oracle 12c version.

At the below note I explained the changes at DB Vault installation . At this note I will show you what has been changed to enable and disable DB Vault in Oracle 12c version.

https://yusufanilakduygu.wordpress.com/2017/04/16/oracle-db-vault-new-features-in-oracle-12c-changes-at-db-vault-installation/

The major changes is you have to connect to database as DB vault owner to disable and enable DB Vault in Oracle 12c. But in Oracle 11g version ,  oracle operating system user can enable and disable Oracle DB Vault. It means that ;  Oracle DBA can change DB vault status in Oracle 11g . But in version Oracle 12c only DB Vault owner can do this.

This is a big change and It makes DB Vault much more secure in Oracle 12c.

In Oracle 11g version

In Oracle 11g , you can disable and enable DB Vault bu only chopt command. Only oracle user ( operation system user ) can run this command from operating system. DBAs can disable Oracle DB Vault in Oracle 11g version and then after making changes at the Database DBAs can enable Oracle DB Vault without asking the Database Security officer. This is an insecure situation and Oracle changed it in Oracle 12c version.

Enable DB Vault in Oracle 11g

Shutdown the database
CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
Enter password: password

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

Enable Oracle DB Vault

$ chopt enable lbac

$ chopt enable dv

And then startup the database

CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
Enter password: password

STARTUP

DISABLE DB Vault in Oracle 11g

Shutdown the database
CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
Enter password: password

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

Disable  Oracle DB Vault

$ chopt disable dv

$ chopt disable lbac

And then startup the database

CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
Enter password: password

STARTUP

In Oracle 12c version

In Oracle 12c version you have to connect the database with an account which is a database owner. Simple; database owner can enable and disable Oracle DB vault in Oracle 12c version. And this is much more secure if you compare it with Oracle 11g version.

Enable DB Vault in Oracle 12c

connect as the Oracle Database Owner (DV_OWNER) account, and then enable Oracle Database Vault.

SQL> CONNECT dvowner
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV;
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> commit;
Commit complete.

Note ; If Oracle Label security is not enabled before , You should enable it

CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA
Enter password: password

EXEC LBACSYS.CONFIGURE_OLS;
EXEC LBACSYS.OLS_ENFORCEMENT.ENABLE_OLS;

and then restart the database;

CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
Enter password: password

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

STARTUP 

Disable  DB Vault in Oracle 12c

connect as the Oracle Database Owner (DV_OWNER) account, and then disable Oracle Database Vault.

SQL> CONNECT dvowner
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV;
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> commit;
Commit complete.

and then restart the database;

CONNECT SYS AS SYSOPER
Enter password: password

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

STARTUP 

 

Oracle DB Vault New Features in Oracle 12c R1 – Part1 : Changes at DB Vault Installation

There are many changes at Oracle DB Vault in Oracle 12c version. At this note I will give you information about  the change at DB  Vault Installation .

  1. DB Vault Installation

At Oracle 11g version you need to  relink Oracle binary before installing Oracle DB Vault. You do not need this operation in Oracle 12c.

At Oracle 11g version you need to relink binary with chopt command like below

$ chopt enable lbac

$ chopt enable dv

And You do not need in Oracl 12c vesion

In order to install and configure DB Vault In Oracle 11g version, you have to use dbca. At Oracle 12c you only need dbca to install Oracle Label Security and Oracle DB vault component . You can use DVSYS.CONFIGURE_DV packet to configure DB vault. Actually still you can do this configuration with dbca but it is optional.

DB Vault component installation is made with this page in  dbca in Oracle 12c version.

Capture

And DB Vault configuration can be made by dbca but It is optional

Capture

This gives us flexibility ; During database installation DBAs can install Oracle DB Vault without making any configuration on it. After the DB Vault installation is completed, you can make DB Vault configuration as a security officer without DBA intervention.

The below  query shows that DB Vault component is installed. But It does not mean that It is enabled.

SQL> select comp_id,status from dba_registry where comp_id in (‘OLS’,’DV’);

COMP_ID STATUS
—————————— ———–
DV VALID
OLS VALID

With DVSYS.CONFIGURE_DV; you can mention which user is DB Vault admin and which user database account manager.

SQL> BEGIN
2 DVSYS.CONFIGURE_DV (
3 dvowner_uname => ‘dvowner’,
4 dvacctmgr_uname => ‘dvacctmngr’);
5 END;
6 /

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

This packet is new in Oracle 12c and It gives us flexibility to security officer to configure DB vault alone. After DB Vault component installation tou do not need to rebound the database bu you need to run utlrp.sql to compile all invalid objects.

 

 

 

 

 

Installing Oracle DB Vault to Oracle 11g Database

Installing Oracle DB Vault to Oracle 11g Database

At this document; I will show you how you can install Oracle DB vault to Oracle 11g Database.

Step 1: Check If DB Vault installed before

We use GV$OPTION view to check this. I checked DB vault in two nodes RAC database.

SQL> column parameter format a25

SQL> column value format a25

SQL> SELECT * FROM gV$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER in ( ‘Oracle Database Vault’,’Oracle Label Security’);

INST_ID|PARAMETER |VALUE

———-|————————-|————————-

1|Oracle Label Security |FALSE

1|Oracle Database Vault |FALSE

2|Oracle Label Security |FALSE

2|Oracle Database Vault |FALSE

If Oracle database Vault and Oracle Label Security are already installed ( It means all TRUE returned from this query ) goto step 3;

Step 2: Enable Oracle Label Security and Oracle DB Vault

2.1 Close the Database

Shutdown Oracle database , stop listener ( If you opened a listener with this binary ) and stop enterprise manager ( If Enterprise manager uses this binary )

SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

$ lsnrctl stop listener

$ emctl stop dbconsole

2.2 Enable DB Vault Binaries

Now enable Oracle Label Security and Oracle database vault consequently with the following commands

$ chopt enable lbac

$ chopt enable dv

2.3 Open the Database

After enabling Oracle Label security and DB vault you have to open database and other closed applications.

SQL> startup

$ lsnrctl start listener

$ emctl start dbconsole

2.4 Check if Binaries linked properly

Now Check DB vault and Oracle Label Security.

SQL> column parameter format a25

SQL> column value format a25

SQL> SELECT * FROM gV$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER in ( ‘Oracle Database Vault’,’Oracle Label Security’);

INST_ID|PARAMETER |VALUE

———-|————————-|————————-

1|Oracle Label Security |TRUE

1|Oracle Database Vault |TRUE

2|Oracle Label Security |TRUE

2|Oracle Database Vault |TRUE

All returned values have to be TRUE

Step 3 : Install DB Vault

Now It is time  to install DB vault. Start installation with dbca

$ dbca

Choose Configure database option.

null

Chose the correct DB name to install DB vault.( If there are multiple instances at the same ORACLE_HOME)

null

Skip Enterprise Manager Configuration

null

Now Chose Oracle LAbel Security and Oracle Database Vault to install them

null

Now enter the usernames and passwords for Database Vault Owner and Account Manager separately.

null

Chose Finish to start the Installation

null

Now the installation will start

null

After this windows and the installation window will appear and shows the status of installation. After the installation finishes you can close dbca.

Now you installed Oracle DB Vault to your database. Just connect with  DB Owner and Account Manager usernames to the database to check the installation

At the following notes I will show you how you can manage Oracle DB Vault.